Ex.12:40-41 says, “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.”
The 430 years sojourning begins with Abram leaving Haran at the age of 75. Him and Sarai went down into Egypt.
Gen.12:10 “And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in the land.”
400 years of affliction.
Gen.15:13-14 “And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.”
The 400 years of affliction began with Ishmael mocking Isaac at the age of 5. Isaac was a big boy still nursing off his mom and they were celibrating him being weaned (Gen.21:8). Abraham would have been 105 at that time (30 years later).
Gen.21:9 “And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.”
These are two reference points to use for the Exodus. One is the 430 years and the other is the 400 years. Two different events that often get used as one and the same. They are not.
Joseph’s family fully goes down into Egypt at exactly 215 years from the time Abram left Haran and went down into Egypt for the first time. 215 years after this point was the Exodus. 430 years total.
Moses was born 135 years after Joseph’s family goes down into Egypt. Moses was 80 when the Exodus happened. That’s 80 years of hard labor for the children of Israel during Moses’ time. Joseph was 39 years old when his family went down into Egypt. He died when he was 110. If we subtract 39 from 110, that’s at least 71 years they lived in peace. If we subtract 71 from the 135 years until Moses’ birth, that’s 64 more years that we can add to the 80 years of Moses. Total 144 years of hard labor maximum. It was probably less than this because we can’t assume there arouse a pharaoh that knew not Joseph at the time of his death. Maximum hard labor though is 144 years. Probably, a little more than 80 years in my opinion.